Almost everyone is born with two kidneys, but each person only needs one healthy kidney to live. When both kidneys stop working, it is called kidney failure (end-stage renal disease, or ESRD). People with kidney failure must have dialysis or a kidney transplant to survive. A kidney transplant is a surgery to give a person a healthy kidney from someone else’s body. The donated kidney can come from someone who has just died or someone who is still alive. When the kidney comes from someone who has just died, it is called a deceased donor transplant. When the kidney comes from someone who is alive, it is called a living donor transplant. After a living donor transplant is done, the recipient (the person receiving the kidney) and the donor (the person donating the kidney) each has one healthy kidney.