Surprise medical bills can result from a person receiving emergency care at an out-of-network facility or receiving care from an out-of-network physician/specialist at an in-network facility. Patients then receive an unexpected and costly bill after their care that can cause a significant financial burden. Because kidney disease patients have a chronic condition and possibly other comorbidities that may necessitate emergency care, the issue of surprise medical bills is a concern for AKF. As legislators consider ways to address surprise medical bills, AKF believes proposals should ensure that patients are held financially harmless from additional costs associated with out-of-network care that the patient cannot control.