Blood tests for bone health usually include the following:

Test Name What does the test check for?
Phosphorus blood test

Note: This is sometimes listed on lab results as "phosphate"
Checks the level of phosphorus in the blood. A high level means too much phosphorus is in your blood. This is called hyperphosphatemia.
Parathyroid hormone (PTH) blood test Checks the level of PTH in your blood. Too much PTH in the blood can be a sign of a problem.
Too much phosphorus or not enough vitamin D in your blood puts you out of balance. Your body tries to "fix" this using a hormone called parathyroid hormone (PTH). PTH pulls calcium from your bones to try and put your blood back in balance. This loss of calcium can eventually cause bone disease.
Calcium blood test Checks the amount of calcium in  your blood. Calcium levels tend to get lower as kidney function worsens. This occurs for many reasons. Calcium levels in your blood are looked at along with phosphorus, vitamin D and PTH levels to determine bone health.  
Vitamin D blood test Checks the level of vitamin D in the blood. Active Vitamin D is used by your body to keep bones strong and the right levels of phosphorus and calcium in the blood. Healthy kidneys activate vitamin D from food, vitamin D supplements and sunlight so your body can use it.