The process of getting listed for a kidney transplant often begins when your doctor refers you for the transplant surgery. But, you do not have to be referred by a doctor. You are free to visit a transplant center to be evaluated if you are interested in transplant.
You can only be ready for a kidney transplant after you have passed the required evaluation at a transplant center that looks at your physical health, mental health, and finances. If you pass this evaluation and the transplant team decides you are ready for transplant, you will be added to the national waiting list.
The national organ waiting list is managed by an organization called the United Network for Organ Sharing (UNOS), a private, nonprofit agency that works with the federal government. UNOS keeps track of all the people in the United States who need kidney transplants, and matches them with donors.
The national waiting list is not an ordered list that gives priority to the person who has been listed the longest. The UNOS waiting list uses complex ways to calculate where and when the best kidney match becomes ready for you.
The United States is divided into 11 regions and 58 local Organ Procurement Organizations (OPO)s, which are areas used to find matches for transplant. For example, if a kidney becomes available, UNOS will first try to find a match in the OPO where the kidney is being donated. If no match is found there, UNOS will search within the larger region. If no match is found within the OPO or region, the kidney will then be available to someone who lives outside the region.
When deciding who gets an available kidney, UNOS considers things about the donor and the person who is getting a kidney (the recipient):
- The age of the recipient
- Blood type of the donor and recipient
- The size of the donor kidney compared to the body of the recipient
- How urgent it is for the recipient to get a kidney
- How long the recipient has been waiting for a kidney
- The distance of the recipient from the donor kidney