- APOL1-mediated kidney disease
A spectrum of kidney diseases that is associated with mutations or variants in the apolipoprotein L1 (APOL1) gene and are linked to an increased risk for kidney disease in people of African and Caribbean descent. The APOL1 gene makes a protein in your immune system which is your body's cells and tissues that fight infection. If there is a mutation in one or both APOL1 genes, kidneys can be damaged and can cause kidney failure.
- Altruistic donor
A living kidney donor who donates a non-directed kidney to someone they do not know. The transplant hospital makes sure the kidney goes to the person at the top of the list with the best match.This is also known as a non-directed donor.
A medical condition in which there are not enough red blood cells to carry oxygen through your body. Anemia is common for people with late-stage chronic kidney disease (CKD) and affects most dialysis patients.
- Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors
A group of medicines used to treat high blood pressure and heart failure
- Anxiety disorders
A reaction that the body may have to stress; intense fear and anxiousness that can get in the way of normal activities
- Artery vein fistula (AVF)
A type of vascular access where a surgeon creates a connection between your artery and your vein to create a large blood vessel for blood to flow through it. During dialysis, needles are inserted in the AV fistula to get access to the bloodstream.
- Artificial kidney
An innovation in kidney treatments which may be a wearable or implantable option for kidney replacement therapy.
- Atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD)
A condition where arteries narrow, which restricts blood flow to organs. This can lead to heart attacks and strokes.
- Atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome (aHUS)
A rare genetic disease that causes tiny blood clots to form, which blocks blood flow to organs and can lead to kidney failure.
- Calcium phosphate
A mineral that is used to treat a lack of calcium, which is important for bone formation and maintaining the body
- Chronic kidney disease (CKD)
Lasting damage to your kidneys that can get worse over time. If the damage is severe, your kidneys may stop working. CKD may cause your kidneys to lose their ability to filter waste and fluid out of your blood. Waste can build up in your body and harm your health.
A percent of the cost of health services you pay after you meet your deductible. See definitions for “copayment,” “deductible” and “co-insurance.
- Coordination of benefits (COB)
The process that allows plans that provide health and/or prescription coverage for a person with Medicare to determine their respective payment responsibilities
- Copayment (copays)
A fixed amount paid by an individual who has health insurance. See definitions for "copayment," "deductible" and "co-insurance.
A waste product in your blood that comes from your muscles. Healthy kidneys take creatinine out of your blood and send it out of your body through your urine. If your kidneys are not working the way they should, creatinine will build up in your blood.
- DASH Diet
An eating plan to lower or control high blood pressure. It consists of being low in salt and rich in fruits, vegetables, whole grains, low fat dairy and lean protein.
- Deceased organ donor
A person who has just died and had given permission (or whose legally authorized representative gave permission) to donate their healthy organs, eyes or tissue.
A certain amount you pay before insurance will pay for the cost of health service. See definitions for "copayment," "deductible" and "co-insurance."
A disease that causes your blood sugar (glucose) to be too high because your body cannot make or use insulin the way it should. Diabetes is the most common cause of kidney failure.
- Dialysis technicians
Staff who work closely with health care professionals and patients to prepare care during dialysis by assembling and maintaining dialysis machines, ensuring safety and making sure the patient is comfortable.
A condition that occurs when small sacs form and push outward through weak spots in the wall of the colon. Mild cases may not show any symptoms, but pain in the lower abdomen may develop as the condition worsens.
- Double-blind (masked) study
A study in which neither the participants nor the researcher knows what treatment is received until the clinical trial is over.
- Genetic counselor
A professional who can review genetic test results with individuals to understand the implications of findings.
- Genetic testing
The process of testing to examine your DNA to look for changes, also known as mutations, that can increase the risk of a genetic disease.
- Gestational diabetes
High blood sugar during pregnancy, as a result of pregnancy hormones blocking the body from using insulin (hormone that turns sugar into energy) the way it should. Blood sugar levels usually go back to normal after giving birth.
A group of diseases causing inflamed tissues of the kidneys, resulting in issues filtering waste from the blood.
- Glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1 RA)
A group of drugs used to lower blood sugar levels and treat type 2 diabetes.
- Health disparities
Differences in health outcomes that may occur by gender, race or ethnicity, education, income, disability, geographic location, and sexual orientation among others.
- Health equity
The state in which every person has a fair and just opportunity to achieve their highest level of health.
One type of dialysis treatment for kidney failure, which uses a machine to clean your blood.
A medical term that refers to having too much oxalate (a natural chemical in your body) in your urine.
When a person sleeps for a long period of time and is unable to stay awake even after a full night of good sleep.
A committee that applies research ethics by reviewing the methods proposed for research to ensure that they are ethical.
- IgA nephropathy
A rare disease that causes swelling and kidney damage due to a buildup of proteins in your kidneys.
Medications used to reduce the strength of your immune system to prevent your body from rejecting a transplanted organ.
- Inclusion criteria/Exclusion criteria
Factors that allow someone to participate or not participate in a clinical trial. An example of exclusion criteria is high blood pressure. An example of inclusion criteria is being over the age of 18.
- Incompatible kidney transplant
A kidney transplant performed when the recipient’s and donor’s blood types do not match.
- Informed consent
The process of informing participants about the risks and potential benefits about a clinical trial before someone decides whether to enroll.
A chronic inability to get enough sleep especially due to trouble falling asleep or staying asleep.
- Interventional radiology
Medical imaging (MRI, CT, ultrasound) used to guide minimally invasive surgical procedures that diagnose, treat and cure many kinds of conditions.
- Nephrology nurse
A registered nurse who is trained to take care of kidney patients. You will see nephrology nurses in your doctor's office and in your dialysis center.
- Nephrology social worker
A professional who serves as a support system to adjusting and understanding kidney disease.
A surgeon specializing in surgery on the nervous system, especially the brain and spinal cord.
- Paired exchange program
An alternative for transplant candidates whose willing donors are incompatible matches when the recipient in one pair is compatible with the donor from the other pair and vice versa.
- Percutaneous biopsy
A procedure during which a needle is inserted into a targeted area in the body to collect cells or tissue.
- Peritoneal dialysis
A type of dialysis treatment for kidney failure that can be done at home. It uses a fluid that you put in your belly and then removed to clean your blood.
- Polycystic kidney disease (PKD)
A genetic type of kidney disease that causes about 2 percent of all cases of kidney failure in the United States. See definition for “autosomal dominant PKD”
A mineral and electrolyte found in most foods that play an important role in your body such as boosting your nervous system, preventing muscle cramps and improving bone health and muscle tissue growth.
- Preemptive kidney transplant
A surgery in which you receive a kidney transplant before kidney function deteriorates to the point of needing dialysis.
- Prevention trial
A clinical trial that attempts to find ways to prevent a condition or prevents a returning condition.
- Primary care provider
A doctor who serves as the main point of contact for all basic medical needs and provides services to all patients. This person can be a doctor, physician assistant, or nurse practitioner.
- Primary hyperoxaluria
A rare genetic disorder that mainly damages the kidneys and results from a buildup of a substance called oxalate, which normally is filtered through the kidneys and passed in the urine.
- Principal investigator
The person in charge of the experiment or trial who leads the clinical research team and regularly monitors study participants’ health to determine the study’s safety and effectiveness.
- Proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) serine protease inhibitor
A new class of medicine that lower cholesterol in the blood.
A measure taken to protect someone who participates in clinical trials. These safeguards protect from possible side effects and being treated unfairly during the trial.
- Screening trial
Also known as a diagnostic trial, evaluates new tests for detecting health conditions before symptoms are present.
- Secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT)
A medical term for what occurs when a disease you have causes low blood calcium, which makes your parathyroid glands grow larger and make too much parathyroid hormone. The most common cause of SHPT is kidney failure.
- Short daily home hemodialysis
A type of hemodialysis done for about two hours, every day of the week or everyday that can be done at any time of the day that is convenient for you. Fluid is taken out of your blood and can make you feel better between treatments.
- Single-blind (masked) study
Participants of this study do not know which treatment they are receiving.
- Social determinants of health
The conditions in places where people live, learn, work, and play that affect a wide range of health and quality-of life-risks and outcomes.
- Sodium/glucose cotransporter-2 (SGLT2 inhibitors)
Prescription medication used with diet and exercise that can lower blood sugar in adults with type 2 diabetes.
- Stage 3 kidney disease
Mild to moderate kidney damage. Kidneys don’t work as well as they should.
Stage 3a: eGFR is 45 to 59; Stage 3b: eGFR is 30 to 44
- Stage 4 kidney disease
Severe kidney damage. Kidneys are close to not working at all. eGFR is 15 to 29
- Stage 5 kidney disease
Most severe kidney damage. Kidneys are close to not working or have stopped working (failed). eGFR is less than 15
- Transplant surgeon
Doctors who perform the actual transplant surgery and work closely with the rest of the transplant team right before and right after the surgery.
- Treatment trial
A type of clinical trial that tests new medicines, treatments or therapies for a disease of health condition.
- Tunneled venus catheter
A thin tube that is placed into a vein beneath the skin, allowing long-term access to the vein. This catheter is used for hemodialysis.
- Type 1 diabetes
When the pancreas does not make insulin or makes very little insulin. Type 1 diabetes is a chronic condition that usually happens in kids or young adults.
- United Network for Organ Sharing (UNOS)
A nonprofit organization that maintains a computer database of all organizations and transplant centers to provide organs to patients best suited in receiving them.
- Urine albumin-to-creatinine (UACR) test
A test which measures how much albumin (the main protein in your blood) and creatine (a waste product in your blood that comes from your muscles) are in your urine. Anything above 30mg/g indicates kidney disease.