Some rare, or less common, diseases can cause kidney damage that leads to chronic kidney disease and kidney failure. These disease may harm the kidneys, as well as other organs and tissues.
- Alagille syndrome
- Alport syndrome
- Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD)
- Autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease (ARPKD)
- Fabry disease
- Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS)
- Goodpasture syndrome
- aHUS (atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome)
- Hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS)
- Henoch-Schönlein purpura
- IgA nephropathy (Berger’s disease)
- Interstitial nephritis
- Minimal change disease
- Nephrotic syndrome
- Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP)
- Granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA)
- Primary hyperoxaluria
Alagille syndrome mainly affects your liver but can damage other parts of your body including your kidneys, heart, brain, eyes, and skeleton. Learn more about Alagille syndrome.
Alport syndrome is caused by problems with three genes that control the way certain parts of your body are shaped. As a result, parts of your kidneys, ears, and eyes do not grow correctly. Learn more about Alport syndrome.
Amyloidosis (am-il-oyd-OH-sis) causes proteins called amyloids to build up and form clumps inside your organs and tissues, causing damage. Learn more about amyloidosis.
Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD)
Autosomal dominant PKD (ADPKD) is the most common type of PKD. About 9 out of every 10 people with PKD have the autosomal dominant form. It is also the most common inherited kidney disease. ADPKD causes cysts to form only in the kidneys and symptoms of the disease may not appear until a person is between 30 and 50 years old. Learn more about autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease.
Autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease (ARPKD)
Autosomal recessive PKD (ARPKD) is a much less common form of PKD. ARPKD causes cysts to form in both the kidneys and the liver. Symptoms of the disease can begin even before birth and can cause life-threatening problems in infants. Learn more about autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease.
Cystinosis happens when cystine, a component of protein, builds up in your body’s cells. Having too much cystine can damage your organs including your kidneys, eyes, pancreas, liver, and brain. Learn more about cystinosis.
Fabry disease is a rare genetic disorder that can be passed down from parent to child. It runs in families, so several members of the same family often have it. Fabry disease is found in roughly 1 in 40,000 people. Learn more about Fabry disease.
Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS)
Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) involves scars on some of your kidneys’ filters. The scarring makes it hard for your kidneys to filter out wastes from your body and can lead to kidney failure. Learn more about FSGS.
Glomerulonephritis (glow-mer-you-low-nef-RYE-tis), sometimes called glomerular disease, involves damage to the tiny filters in your kidneys, called glomeruli. Glomerulonephritis can begin suddenly or slowly, over time. Learn more about glomerulonephritis.
Goodpasture syndrome is a group of conditions that affects your kidneys and lungs. It causes your immune system to attack the tiny filters in your kidneys and the tissue in your lungs. Learn more about Goodpasture syndrome.
aHUS (atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome)
aHUS (atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome) is a rare disease that causes too many blood clots to form in your blood vessels. Because these blood clots block regular blood flow to your kidneys, your kidneys are not able to get rid of waste in your body as well as they should. Learn more about aHUS.
Hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS)
Hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) occurs when your red blood cells are destroyed and block your kidneys’ filters. Learn more about HUS.
Henoch-Schönlein purpura (HSP) also known as anaphylactoid purpura, causes small blood vessels in your body including those in the skin, stomach, and kidneys to become swollen and leak. Learn more about Henoch-Schönlein purpura (HSP).
IgA nephropathy (Berger’s disease)
IgA is a protein that helps you fight infections. With IgA nephropathy, the IgA proteins build up and form clumps inside your kidneys’ tiny filters called glomeruli, and cause damage. Learn more about IgA nephropathy.
Interstitial nephritis happens when a part of your kidneys’ filters called the tubules become swollen. It can be acute, and only happen for a short time, or chronic, and last for several weeks or months. Learn more about interstitial nephritis.
Minimal change disease
Minimal change disease (MCD) involves damage to your kidneys’ tiny filters. The cause of MCD is unknown. Some suspected causes for MCD are allergic reactions, tumors, using NSAIDs, or infections. Learn more about minimal change disease (MCD).
Nephrotic syndrome is a group of symptoms that, together, indicate that your kidneys are not working as well as they should. Learn more about nephrotic syndrome.
Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP)
Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP), is a rare blood disease also known as microangiopathic hemolytic anemia, or Moschowitz disease. TTP happens when too many blood clots that have formed in your blood vessels make it hard for oxygen to reach organs in your body like the kidneys. Learn more about Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP).
Granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA)
Granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA), formerly known as Wegener’s granulomatosis, is a disease that causes swelling and irritation of blood vessels in your kidneys, nose, sinuses, throat and lungs. Learn more about Granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA).
Primary hyperoxaluria (pronounced preye-merr-ee heye-per-oxal-yur-ee-a) is a rare liver disease. Learn about symptoms, causes and treatment options. Learn more about Primary hyperoxaluria.